Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (2023)

Their Life Mystery

Abigail Loraine Hensel and Brittany Lee Hensel share the rare and almost unheard-of condition of conjoined twins. Like many other families, they live a normal life in Minnesota with two younger siblings, however, their remarkable story remains a mystery to this day.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (1)

No matter how hard their parents tried to give the twins a normal and stress-free upbringing, there was no way anyone could ignore the fact, that these two, were joined for life. So, how did this all begin?

Early Pregnancy

When Patty first fell pregnant, there was no indication of her having anything abnormal with her baby. All of the scans and ultrasounds predicted, that there was one healthy baby on its way.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (2)

Everything went according to plan until one day during a sonogram scan, it was believed that two heartbeats were heard. Soon enough this speculation was dismissed and both Patty and Mike were excited about the future and what it was holding for them. They couldn't wait to meet their baby.

Unexpected Suprise

Unplanned, a c-section was booked for Patty as her baby was thought to be in a breech position. What happened next was about to amaze the entire delivery room. No one was expecting this and there wasn't a soul in the room who wasn't shocked.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (3)

The conjoined twins were pulled out of Patty's uterus leaving Dr. Joy Westerdahl, the physician, speechless. No one was expecting to see one baby with two heads.

Two of a Kind

Patty was emotionally unstable and kept hearing the word Siamese being said in the delivery room. At one point she asked herself if she gave birth to cats, as she had no idea what was going on. The news was broken to Mike in a very unpleasant way.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (4)

Mike told 'Time Magazine" that he wasn't very impressed by the way the hospital staff delivered the news about his babies. "They said, 'They've got one body and two heads,'"not being very sensitive to him or the situation.

Off the Record

How could this have not been seen before? Patty had every single scan and test expected from her and all of her blood levels were ok. How could someone miss a head? An entire head?

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (5)

The doctors excused this by saying, the babies' heads were most likely perfectly aligned making it impossible to notice. As they only have one body, there was no reason to look for abnormal body organs.

No One Had Reasonable Answers

Patty and Mike had no idea what was going to be and the doctors didn't have any answers either. Will the two twins survive? And if so, what kind of life would they have? There were too many questions and not enough answers.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (6)

The prognosis was not very optimistic and Patty and Mike had to prepare themselves for the worse. If it's meant to be, it's meant to be, and if it's not, then they will have to take one step at a time.

Crucial Hours

The first night after delivery was an indication of the rest. Although the baby twins managed to survive the first 24 hours, the doctors didn't predict any good news. Statistically, the odds were not in favor of the girls.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (7)

Patty and Mike were praying and surrounding themselves with good and pure energies. They had to pull through this no matter what. And they did. The Hensel twins are reported to be one of four similar cases who survived similar conditions.

Against All Odds

No one expected the twins to make it as the survival rate for twins in the same condition is as low as 5%. Despite all that, Abigail and Brittany grew up almost as all young teenagers, except for the fact that they had to share a body.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (8)

They had two heads, meaning they had two minds. Multiple views and two different opinions and different identities. They came across many obstacles and barriers, however, managed to live and tell us all about it.

They Shared Almost Everything

The heads are not their only individual body part. They have two sets of lungs and three kidneys, and even have two betting hearts, however, they do share a complete circulatory system.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (9)

They have one bladder and share the same reproductive system. One astonishing fact is that they were born with a third arm however it was removed when they were toddlers. The doctors tried to make life as physically easy as they could.

Getting Used to Each Other

Most people (who don't share a body with anyone else) find it difficult to identify or relate to such a condition. What happens when one girl hurts herself? Does the other one feel it too? And what happens when one wants to walk and operate the legs?

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (10)

Well, here are some answers. If one hurts herself, the other doesn't feel a thing. And they can both operate their unjoined organs individually, so each one controls half of the body. Simple actions that we take for granted require a lot of practice and concentration from joined twins.

Was It Time to Separate the Two?

So, why didn't Patty and Mike discuss separating the two when they were born? Well, they did. It was discussed several times, however, such a procedure wouldn't be as simple as one might think. The risk was too high.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (11)

Separating the twins could lead to one of the girls, if not both, ending up handicapped, or even worse, not coming through at all after the surgery. This was a risk no one was willing to take.

Going All the Way

When Patty and Mike finally came to terms with their share of life's gifts, they decided they wanted the girls to live as normally as possible. They would not deprive them of anything and will try to socialize them with, what is called, normal kids.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (12)

They will also provide whatever the two need, both as one unit and as individuals. Brittany and Abby needed to be loved and supported and their body was a difficult machine they had to learn how to operate. Even crawling and walking turned into lifetime missions that needed dedication from both sides. The twins, and of course Patty and Mike.

As Normal as Possible

The girls went to a regular school. They participated as much as they could in sports, and mingled with friends, and from the outside, everything seemed to be just fine. The thing is, it wasn't. Not only was their body abnormal, but the girls also suffered from severe medical conditions.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (13)

They had health issues chasing them all year round which made it difficult to lead a stable life. They were unique on the outside, and they had to cherish how special and distinctive they really were.

It's TV Time

1996 was when they first presented themselves in the media. They were on the Opera Show not once but twice. That TV appearance is what made Brittany and Abby famous. This was followed by “The Hensel’s Summer”, a Lifetime Magazine piece that shed light on the two and made their story go public.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (14)

Overnight, Brittany and Abby became twin superstars and through their remarkable story, they managed to reach out to the nation's hearts. Having said that, not everything was a garden of roses.

It Was a Bit too Much

Being recognized by almost everyone was at first fun and exciting, however, at one point it became overwhelming and a little too much to handle. It started with people staring at them and then wanting to take photos with them. Things were getting bad.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (15)

On one hand, the twins were finally able to say what was on their minds and to share their voices, however, on the other hand, most people were not being sensitive to their condition and made the two feel like lepers.

Big Abroad

'Joint at Birth' and 'Joint for Life' were some of the documentaries shows the family filmed. When they turned 16, they appeared on a UK TV show called 'Extraordinary People' which eventually led to the two creating their own TV show, 'Abby & Brittany on TLC'.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (16)

It aired on August 28th, 2012, and featured eight full-length episodes. The series covered the childhood story, growing up together, social life, graduation, and traveling experiences.

Everything Fell Into Place

Shortly after the show was launched, Abby & Brittany became a symbol of courage. A mark of strength and perseverance, determination and power. After watching them on TV, life suddenly fell into proportions. It made one look at their own personal life, through a different colored lens.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (17)

It proved, that no matter how big your sack of lemons is, if you believe strongly enough and take life's gifts as they are handed out to you, you can make an excellent lemonade. Abby & Brittany were an inspiration.

They Did It All

Name one kid that doesn't take life for granted. Running, climbing, swimming, and walking all seem like easy-to-handle daily activities, however, for the Hensel twins, these simple actions were life milestones they had to achieve and accomplish.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (18)

For them to walk, they had to be aligned and in perfect unison. For them to swim, their body movements had to be completely synchronized. Their body muscles weren't developed equally which made things even more difficult than they already were.

No Different Than Anyone Else

With all the barriers and obstacles that stood in their way, the twins were not going to let anything stand between them and success. They were determined to do whatever other kids did and were willing to fight hard.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (19)

Their hard work eventually paid off. It was worth the sweat, pain, and agony, because Brittany and Abby rode their bike, ran on their front loan, and swam at the local swimming pool. When they came of age, they even learned, believe it or not, how to drive a car.

Driving Together

Operating a vehicle or learning the meaning of every street sign was not an issue for the two. The twins had one set of arms and one set of legs to operate a car with, so they had to be synchronized to perfection in order to hit the road. And they were.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (20)

They put all they had into it and managed to pass their driving test, just like any other regular 16-year-old. Just like anything else they touched, it was an immaculate accomplishment, and their parents couldn't have been more proud.

Who Was in Charge of What?

“I think we're good drivers” they answered in one interview. They felt confident behind the wheel and being able to drive made them feel that much closer to regular people. They even detailed who is responsible for what when they are behind the wheel.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (21)

Abby is in charge of the gas pedal and in control of the brakes. Brittany takes control of the blinkers and together they operate the steering wheel. This kind of cooperation is not seen every day.

Are You Hungry?

Another thing they have to share is their appetite. They have to decide when and what to eat simultaneously and this is where compromising meets them the most. One holds the fork, the other holds the knife and they take turns in biting the food.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (22)

We suppose when you're born into a situation, not being able to be a solo decider on what to have for dinner is something you learn to live with. These two girls surely have a lesson or two to teach the world.

They Even Played the Piano

Brittany and Abby are very talented. Not only did they accomplish basic skills such as running and driving, but they have also nourished their piano-playing passion and have turned out to be amazing musicians.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (23)

One plays the right-hand side while the other plays the left side. These two girls are, with no doubt, phenomenal ladies, always stretching their limits.

School Ended

Graduating from high school wasn't enough for the two. They were always straight-A students and continuing to higher education meant a lot to them. They were ready for a new challenge in life and college was calling.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (24)

In 2008 they began studying at Bethnal University and chose to major in education. The university days were not easy on the two and the tight schedule was sometimes too much for them to handle, however, they were determined as always, and unsurprisingly, they succeeded.

On Their Way to a Diploma

When they first decided to go to university, they initially wanted to major in different fields. Very fast they understood that that would increase the pressure they were already under and comprehended that they would have to compromise.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (25)

As they both dreamt of becoming teachers, majoring in education seemed the natural thing to do. In 2012, they both graduated, each holding their own diploma.

They Are Two Different People

Many people mistake the two for being one individual, however, all the two share is a body. They are, in fact, two very different people. They have different tastes, and different preferences and their parents made a great effort in helping them create two different personalities.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (26)

One is louder, the other more modest. One tends to be more uptight while the other is chilled and relaxed. And although they have to work physically together for most hours of the day, one thing that they can't do is read each other's minds.


When asked about debates and discussions, they say they never argue. They have managed to specialize in coexistence. It makes their complicated life more bearable. To be honest, Brittany and Abby love being joined together. They couldn't see it any other way.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (27)

The only time they ever wished to be apart, was when one of them was grounded. Yes, if one was punished for whatever reason it was, the other had to bear the burden too.

On the Catwalk

Another thing Brittany and Abby are not completely aligned with is their dress code. They dress differently and have diverse tastes in clothing. When they were young girls, they found it difficult to deal with and understand each other's needs, however, as they grew, they learned to work that out too.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (28)

Over time, they learned how to express themselves through accessories and jewelry. Individual shoes, scarves, and hats were their distinctive individual tools. It made them content and happy.

Custom Made

Obviously, the girls can't just pick up a top in any shop and they have to have them custom-made. Their tops require special necklines and differently shaped sleeves. The pants they wear are also made especially for them, having each leg in a different color.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (29)

If they feel like it, they sometimes each wear a different shoe. At first, they found it hard to comprehend and adapt, but as the years went by, they both learned to respect one another and appreciate each other's wishes.

Could They Go Their Separate Ways?

During their teen years and early twenties, the option of separation was never spoken of until one day Abby was diagnosed with pneumonia. You see, over the years if one girl was sick, it meant the other had to be grounded to her bed even though she was perfectly healthy.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (30)

This time when Abby got sick, Brittany came up with the idea of being separated. It first came as a shock as it was never previously mentioned.

It Was Together All the Way

Brittany's suggestion broke Abby's heart. She was devastated and could believe her beloved half felt that way. They had been joined together for so many years, they never knew anything different, so why did she all of a sudden want a change?

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (31)

Brittany realized how much pain she caused her sister, and decided there and then that being separated would never be suggested again and made a promise that they would always be together. Always.

They Were Two of a Kind

There are very few recorded incidents of separating conjoined twins when already fully grown up and developed. The success rates are low and there are too many risks involved. What makes such a procedure so dangerous, is that the twins share many internal organs, which means that one twin would probably not survive.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (32)

The Hensel twins share many organs turning such a surgery into a very dangerous one. After analyzing their specific condition, it was decided that it was not worth taking the risk.

Lessons of Life

Abby and Brittany have learned how to live together side by side however, they still suffer from many health issues. Not only do they infect one another with diseases, but many of one's actions physically affect the other.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (33)

For example, if Abby drinks coffee, Brittany's heart, which is the weaker of the two, starts to pound. It's not always like that, for example, when Abby was sick and found it difficult to take her medicine, Brittany took it for her, however, it didn't work.

It Had Dark Sides

Throughout their childhood, Brittany and Abby were bullied quite often. It was inevitable as kids are known to be cruel sometimes. This, however, never prevented them from having friends and socializing, and it never stopped them from doing what they loved.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (34)

They hosted parties, friends would always come over, and they made an effort in enjoying their adolescent years, as they knew those precious days would never return. They were only young once.

Ticket to Drive

With all the challenges and obstacles, there are also a few advantages to being a joined twin. When the girls travel, for example, they only have to buy one ticket. Yes, they have two heads and two faces, but they only take up one seat.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (35)

But what happens when they want to go watch a movie? Well, the rules here are different. As the girls have two sets of eyes, they are obliged to buy two tickets. They are sometimes considered one and sometimes considered to be two, and they just had to learn and live with that.

Europe Was Next

When Brittany and Abby graduated from university, they were ready to set their next challenge in life. They were planning their European trip together with two friends from college. As expected, they traveled with two passports but sat on one seat.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (36)

On the last episode of the Abby & Brittany show, their days in London (UK) were documented, capturing all four having the time of their lives. They traveled through all the famous landmarks and were able to enjoy the kingdom just like any other.

London Calling

Traveling to Europe was on the twins' wish list and with the help of their friends, they managed to make their dream come true. Yes, the British stared at them but who doesn't? London conquered them and it was more than they could ever expect.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (37)

Traveling across the ocean was a big deal for them as they were away from their parents and away from their familiar surroundings. Yet again, they proved how awesome they were, and that there was nothing they couldn't achieve, however, while they were traveling, something changed.

Next Step in Life

Brittany and Abby came back from London with a new realization. They were ready to open a new chapter in life and live their life completely differently than what it was before.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (38)

They were in their twenties and ready to move out of their parents' house and get a place of their own. It's not easy moving out of your parent's home, especially if you're a conjoined twin. However, Brittany and Abby were determined and nothing was going to stop them.

Round-the-Clock Care

It was a significant milestone in their life and it meant they would live alone without the 24 hours day seven days week care they were used to. At first, it seemed impossible, but the days went by and everyone came to terms with the fact that no one could watch over them forever.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (39)

The twins moved into their own apartment. The girls knew they had each other and that neither of them was really alone. All it took was believing in themselves, and that made anything possible.

Teacher Teacher

When it was time for the two to find a job, there was no question that they would nail it. They became 5th-grade teachers at Mounds View Public School and are an inspiration to all. Both students and staff.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (40)

Don't think that they weren't concerned about how the children would react to this phenomenon, and in order to prevent discomfort on any side, they held a forum allowing anyone to ask whatever crossed their mind. It was like a breath of fresh air.

Everyone Was Happy

Everyone is happy. The students are satisfied, the student's parents are thrilled with the twins' teaching approach and the school's principals are pleased with what they have accomplished. The twins are content too, however, there is one issue.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (41)

Although Brittany and Abby are two individuals, they are considered as being one teacher. Therefore they only get paid one salary. The girls are not particularly concerned bout this and are overall happy to fulfill their purpose in life.

Side by Side

Brittany and Abby will forever be dependent on one another. Reality has forced itself on them, however, they have learned to compromise and accept. For the Hensel twins, it's all about coming halfway and assuring the other half is happy.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (42)

Patty and Mike, the twins' parents, have forever been their greatest believers. Over the years they have encouraged them, set an example, and cherished their individual personalities. They have always loved them unconditionally.

Would They Ever Be Whole?

The question of marriage has crossed their minds over the years. Deep inside they both long for a partner and for having their own family, and they both believe that one day they will meet some (two) guys, who will love them just the way they are.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (43)

The idea may seem odd and unrealistic, however, these two have accomplished every single goal they have set, so why would this be any different?

A Bright Future

What does the future hold for Brittany and Abby? No one can say. They are aware that their medical condition will probably worsen over the years, and it's presumed that their life will be shorter than average. Having said that, neither have any intention of giving up, and even until this day they are enjoying life to its extent.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (44)

Taking the best out of what life has to offer, despite their condition, is something we all can learn from them. Brittany and Abby are full of life, which we can only envy, and they are full of joy and happiness and are an inspiration to us all.

The Hensel twins aren't something you see every day. Statistically speaking, their lives and survival are among the rarest of anomalies. To learn more about the irregular anomalies a human body can have, keep reading.

Our bodies are made up of, approximately, seven octillion atoms. That's a seven followed by twenty-seven zeros. All those atoms can build and get arranged according to our DNA in a whole lot of different ways, or other things can affect them. This list has plenty of weird and uncommon things that can naturally happen to our bodies.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (45)

You might have a couple of these, you might have heard of them, or they might be so rare that only a single recorded person has ever displayed the trait. Nonetheless, read on and find out how amazing, strange, and intriguing our bodies can be.

Eyes in Different Colors

If you like reading fanfiction, there's a pretty good chance you've heard of this one. Having two different eyes is known as heterochromia (literally, “different colors”) and it's an effect of something called Chimerism when two developing zygotes fuse together in the womb. This is actually quite a bit more common than you might think, but twins or siblings don't often have different colored eyes due to how regressive genes work. It's complicated.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (46)

Chimerism, and heterochromia, are harmless. There are plenty of famous people who have this trait, such as Mila Kunis, Benedict Cumberbatch, and Olivia Wilde, though the results may vary.

Golden Blood. But Not Actually

The rarest blood type in the world is called Rhnull, or “Golden Blood.” It's so rare because it has no antigens, meaning that literally, everyone in the world can receive it from those who have it. Antigens protect against diseases, which is great for the people who need blood transfusions since the blood will never react poorly to them.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (47)

On the other hand, the forty people in the world who produce this blood naturally don't have a great time, since their immune system doesn't do that well. Most blood types have A, B, O, or AB antigens, but this type has none of them. The supply is incredibly useful and highly sought, but only nine people of the forty regularly give blood.

Long Palm Muscles

Known in the scientific community as palmaris longus, this is a muscle that is useful for climbing trees. It's not something that most of us need that much anymore, but there's a relatively good chance you have it. To see if you have it, place your arm on a flat surface like a desk and touch your thumb to your pinky finger.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (48)

If you have a long palm, the muscle and tendon will pop out of your wrist. I definitely have it, which isn't a surprise. I have some dang long hands. If you do have them, go do some climbing and use what nature gave you.

A Gene That Means You Need Less Sleep

There are a few famous people in history who benefit from this gene. The DEC2 gene basically shortens a person's sleep cycle, so they feel just as rested on less sleep. Illustrious figures like Winston Churchill, Nikola Tesla, and Margaret Thatcher have all used this gene to get tons of work done while other people needed their sleep.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (49)

Of course, those people might not have called it a blessing, no matter how nice it sounds to us. Instead of the normal eight hours we all SHOULD be getting, these people got by with between four and six hours. Despite the number of figures who have profited from it, this is a pretty rare mutation.

The Gene That Gives You Unbreakable Bones

Okay, they aren't unbreakable, but they're much denser than normal and that counts for something. A mutation in the LRP5 gene not only bakes your bones with power and makes them hard to break, but it makes your skin less prone to aging. Sounds like a pretty good combo. On the other hand, people with this condition tend to have issues with joint replacements if they haven't been watching their weight.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (50)

Imagine trying to do surgery on Superman's bones. Even if it's something he needs, you'll be going to have to put a lot of effort into it.

An Extra Hole in Your Head

Having a little hole near your ear is called a preauricular sinus, and is discovered during a newborn's first examination. These small pits develop due to developmental defects of the first and second pharyngeal arches, or, you know, the ear bits. They can occur on one side or on both, but for the most part, they're harmless. As long as you don't use them for earrings. We really don't recommend that.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (51)

However, these kinds of ear malformations can sometimes be associated with renal anomalies. Even if they do become a problem, getting them dealt with is usually no big issue.

An Extra Neck Rib

More prevalent in women, having an extra rib near the cervical spinal region (or “neck” for us dum-dums) is known as a cervical rib. Somewhere between one and three percent of the people in the world have a cervical rib on one side or both. They may reach down to connect to the first rib, or they may not be fully formed.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (52)

Often the bone is tiny and hard to notice even on x-rays, but they can sometimes cause complications. A cervical rib means higher chances of nerve or blood vessel compression between the rib or its muscles since the ligamentous connections take up a smaller space.

Less Means More for the Heart

All of us have the PCSK9 gene in us, but some of us have it in a lesser amount, somehow. Maybe it's just a weaker version? It's hard to have less of a gene – you either have it or you don't. Those that lack it, or present the deficiency somehow, have a ninety percent less chance of heart disease, and hardly have to bother with cholesterol at all.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (53)

The gene provides instructions on how to make a protein that regulates the amount of cholesterol in your bloodstream. You might know there are two forms of cholesterol, good and bad, but even bad cholesterol has some uses.

See More Colors

Humans, for the most part, are trichromats. That means that we have three kinds of cone cells in our eyes to interpret and identify colors. There are those, however, that have four kinds of cone cells in their eyes, known as tetrachromacy. They can't see colors that don't exist, but they can perceive the differences in colors much closer.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (54)

Is that couch dark brown or black? We don't know, but tetrachromats will be able to tell us. It was the normal condition of most mammals in the past, but they have lost one or two of their cones by now.

Get Those Elizabeth Taylor Eyes

Having long, beautiful lashes is something that everyone wants if they want to look their best. What about a double layer of eyelashes? This is called distichiasis, and it does just that. There's a technical way to describe this, but really what it does is make your upper lashes thick, full, and popping.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (55)

Actress Elizabeth Taylor, known as one of the most beautiful women in the world, sported this to make things, frankly, a little unfair. This is a good boost, but it can create a sensitivity to light, irritation, sties, and droopy eyelids. It is still a rare trait.

The Rare Genetic Condition Known as...Red Hair

This one is pretty well known. In fact, we wouldn't be surprised if there's someone in your family that has it. But natural red hair is a lot rarer than you might think. It only occurs in about two percent of the population, most common in northern and western Europe. It's a recessive gene, beaten by every other color.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (56)

For someone to have natural red hair, both parents have to have it. You may wonder why they seem far more common, but it turns out something like thirty percent of advertisements feature models with red hair. Plus, there's hair dye and plenty take the opportunity to try out this fiery shade.

What Is the Rarest Eye Color?

The least-common natural eye color, according to researchers, is gray. Less than one percent of the population feature this striking eye color. It's due to a low level of melanin in the front layer of the iris. The most likely place to find this feature is Eastern and Northern Europe, which also has higher numbers of green eyes.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (57)

The only other two shades that are rarer than gray are red or violet, and that's more because of conditions such as albinism, and not what many would term “natural” eye colors. As far as straight genetics go, gray eyes are the rarest, and quite lovely while we're at it.

Ocular Albinism Does More Than Reduce Pigmentation

Did you know there are actually two types of albinism? The first is oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) – this is the version we're all more familiar with. The other is ocular albinism. OCA is already rare, but ocular albinism is even rarer. It's estimated that somewhere between 1 in 20,000 or 1 in 50,000 people have it. Ocular albinism primarily affects the eyes, creating very light irises.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (58)

However, it also causes reduced vision strength, increased sensitivity to light, and other more serious eye conditions. Ocular albinism also affects the pigment of the skin, but it's reduced compared to the more common, relatively, OCA.

Are You a Super Taster?

Genetics can even play a role in your taste buds. About twenty-five percent of the people in the world can be categorized as “supertasters.” These people have more visible taste papillae, which are tiny dots on the tongue. It makes them far more sensitive to certain foods, usually bitter, sweet, and salty flavors. They also tend to really dislike spicy food, for obvious reasons.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (59)

They also tend to stay away from smoking and alcohol. They dislike vegetables since they often have a bitter taste. Despite that, supertasters, especially women, tend to have superior cardiovascular profiles, according to one study. There are lots of possible reasons for this.

Outie Belly Buttons are Becoming Less Popular

Most of us have an innie belly button, but if you're among the lucky four percent of the world, you might just have an outie. A couple of things determine whether you have an innie or outie. The first is the genetic development of the belly button itself, but it also has to do with the order your body puts on fat.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (60)

Different people develop fat in different places, down to specific cells. However, with the popularity of low-rise jeans and midriff tops, belly button plastic surgery is becoming more and more common. Still, the genetics are there, which means that trait will continue to endure.

Can't be Wise Without Them

Once upon a time, we all needed wisdom teeth to grind up tough plants and meat material. When that third row of molars tries to break through the gums, they often don't have enough space, which creates crowding, pain, and jaw issues. We're sure that plenty of the people reading have had a procedure to get them removed.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (61)

There are some people that don't have wisdom teeth at all. An estimated thirty-five percent of humans lack these teeth for some strange reason. It's genetics, but right now we can only guess why more than a third of humans don't have these teeth at all. Evolution perhaps?

Stretch Out Those Eyeballs

If you're looking for a wild party trick, check to see if you have something called globe luxation. It's an extremely rare condition that allows your eyes to actually protrude a little from their sockets.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (62)

With practice and some experimentation, you should be able to pop your eyes out of their sockets a little bit. Great for grossing out nephews. This condition comes with downsides such as optic neuropathy, thyroid eye disease, and things like shallow orbit and floppy eyelid syndrome. They don't sound like they're any fun.

Sing Like the Best of Them

Learning you have perfect pitch doesn't just mean you're a good singer – it means you can mimic musical notes perfectly. Think about hearing a D minor and naming it on the spot without hesitation. Plenty of people are said to have it, but only about one in ten thousand really possess the trait.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (63)

For the others, it's probably a combination of training and luck. Scientists are still in discussion as to whether this is a learned trait or something that is present from birth. Some have thought that with enough training, a true perfect pitch can be developed, but it takes a lifetime of work at the very least.

Survive at High Altitudes

Climbing to high altitudes makes it harder and harder to breathe. There are even heights that, should you not have the proper gear, your body will not make it. It's generally at twenty-six thousand feet or about five miles. Certain groups, however, are able to survive at high altitudes much better.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (64)

Indigenous groups like Tibetans have had generations of adaptation to increase their red blood cell levels and other things, which allows them to survive and even flourish at high altitudes. Going from sea level to higher places, like Colorado, for instance, is considered a change, but here we are referring to extremer heights.

The Fish People of Southeast Asia

Unless we've been trying to increase our skills, most of us start panicking after about thirty seconds underwater. Not so for the people of the Bajau, a group of sea nomads from Southeast Asia. A study found that the Bajau, who commonly take dips in the ocean to fish, have evolved extra-large spleens that hold oxygen-rich blood cells in reserve.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (65)

Because of this, they're able to spend from five to ten minutes underwater without worry. A big spleen is going to help, but training yourself to spend longer and longer periods beneath the waves is going to help, too.

Never Get Lost

Some of us need directions to go to our mom's house, but there are some who seem to have a natural ability to keep going in the right direction. History has shown us skilled explorers that have, whether genetically or through learned traits, guided people without going astray.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (66)

Researchers at the Queensland Brain Institute discovered that this useful ability is mainly attained training in the environment you're in, and comes about slowly as your mind becomes more and more attuned to the small elements around you. Moving to a new area will, for the most part, reduce this ability.

See in the Dark with Sound

No doubt you're aware of the ability dolphins and bats have called echolocation, which allows them to “see” using bouncing sound waves. It turns out a few rare humans also possess this ability. A blind man named Daniel Kish uses flash sonar to ride bikes, hike through wildernesses, and more.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (67)

This is less a genetic trait and more something you have to learn how to do, and even then we can't guarantee that anyone can do it. Still, if an unfortunate accident has left you sightless, you might as well try and develop this skill.

Neither Right nor Left

You probably know that ninety percent of people have a dominant right hand, at least according to the American Psychological Association. Almost all the remaining ten percent are left-handed, but there is a third category. Ambidextrous people make up, at most, one percent of people. While being able to do things with either hand can come in HANDY, there are some disadvantages as well.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (68)

For some reason, ambidextrous kids have a hard time with verbal skills, math, and reading. Also, since the handedness has something to do with the hemispheres of your brain, those who are down the middle will have greater declines in brain volume.

The Long Toe

Depending on where you live, having a second toe that is longer than your big toe might not be rare at all. It could be the norm, or statistically equal. However, one of those famous people you hear about (Meghan somebody, we think) revealed she has long second toes, which got everybody aflutter. It's known as “Morton's Toe,” and it's really just a small change in where the bones of your toes are attached.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (69)

It's also called the “Greek Toe,” with sixty-two percent of Greek men and thirty-two percent of women showing the long toe. Want to know who else exhibits this trait? None other than Lady Liberty herself in New York Harbor.

A Shock of White Hair

“Piebaldism” is a lack of melanocytes in certain areas, most commonly seen in hair follicles. It manifests as a stripe of an area of white hair, though sometimes eyebrows or even eyelashes are affected as well.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (70)

This presents at birth and continues for the rest of the person's life, and it's totally harmless – except for the affected areas being more susceptible to sunburns and skin conditions. Now that we think about it, that's a pretty harmful feature. Some people may feel self-conscious, but hair dye, skin grafts, and other things are available to reduce the effects should it be the kind of thing unwanted.

When Senses Get Mixed Around

There's a good chance you've heard of synesthesia, but this effect only occurs in about three to five percent of the population. People smell colors, they taste music, they feel smells, and all other manners of mixed-up signals in the sense regions of the brain.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (71)

It isn't a mental condition – in fact, many people who have it consider it a gift. The most common version of this sensation is “grapheme-color synesthesia” which has letters or numbers become associated with colors. One hallmark of the trait is if you have it, it always manifests the same way. If the letter D is red, it will always be red.

Face Blindness Sounds Like a Horror Story

Remembering faces seems like the kind of thing that everybody can do, but some poor souls suffer from face blindness. It leaves them unable to recognize familiar people. That includes close friends, family members, and even themselves in mirrors. The term for it is prosopagnosia, and it could result from a brain condition or a stroke. Some people are also born with it.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (72)

It's a mutation or alteration that affects the part of the brain that coordinates memory and facial perception. This is thought to occur in some way in up to two and a half percent of people, though the most intense versions of the condition are far rarer.

It's Like if Superman Could Only Do Faces

“Super-recognizers” have an almost superhuman ability to remember and identify faces they've seen before. This condition was only first identified in 2009. The power of this condition is so strong it could be remembering that you saw someone at a concert or big gathering years and years ago, even if it was just for a moment.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (73)

People with this skill are highly-sought by law enforcement and private security for just this reason. There are actually tests you can take online to see if you have this ability.

The Great Cilantro Debate

For those who like cilantro, it's a great addition to salads, guacamole, and more. For those that don't like it, it's vile – like eating soap. This division is caused by a specific gene that controls the sensing of odors that come from chemicals found in the plant. The gene sometimes doesn't play fair, with fathers and sons differing on their enjoyment of the herb.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (74)

If you can't stand the leaves of the coriander plant, one of the things you can do is crush the leaves up before eating or cooking with them, which helps to break down the chemical at the source of the bitter flavor.

One in Five Hundred

One out of every five hundred babies is born with something called polydactyly – an extra finger or toe. Sometimes it comes with no other anomalies, sometimes it comes with other issues. The extra digits can be removed surgically, but an extra finger can sometimes be a benefit. It's a boon to manual dexterity if the studies are to be believed.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (75)

Those with six fingers could even accomplish with one hand what others do with two. They have their own muscles, tendons, and nerves. Plus, you could be the pianist from Gattaca if you train hard enough.

No Surprise Parties for These People

Have you ever heard “Jumping Frenchmen of Maine?” It's a rare disorder for someone who has an uncontrollable reaction to being startled. A person with this condition might scream, flail their arms, jump or start a fight. Even stranger effects are repeating words, mimicking movements, or mechanically following simple commands. The symptoms begin at puberty, but slowly reduce as age progresses.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (76)

The name comes from French Canadian lumberjacks working in Maine, but the behavior has been seen in Louisiana, Malaysia, Siberia, India, and elsewhere. Researchers are unsure if it's genetic, environmental, cultural, or what. Be careful around such people, or little jokes will become much worse.

The Worst Bad Hair Days Ever

We've all struggled with hair that doesn't want to play nice, but have any of us ever had “uncombable hair syndrome?” It's the result of genetic mutations affecting the proteins that form the hair shafts on the head. Nowhere else on the body, thankfully. The development of the hair makes it impossible to be combed flat.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (77)

Those who are blond or straw-haired are more likely to have this than other shades, and it tends to stick out from the scalp in random directions. Luckily, there are no other health problems it and does tend to calm down with age.

Two People in One Body

A chimera is a mythical beast that is a combination of several different animals – lions, birds, dragons, snakes. They differ based on the area they're from. Chimerism is also present in humans, though it's a little different. It happens when a person has two sets of genomes, from when a twin is partially absorbed by the other twin in the womb.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (78)

It manifests in a variety of different ways, such as heterochromia, but true chimerism is quite rare, with only a hundred people in the world exhibiting it. Researchers believe there may be many more, but it can be difficult to determine.

Super Strong Children

For most of us, getting big and strong requires working out the right way, eating the right food, and a bunch of other things. Sleep is a big one. For people who have inactive myostatin genes, however, it requires nothing at all. Well documented in mice and cattle, children who have this mutation are born swole, possessing bigger muscles and greater strength.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (79)

There hasn't been a great deal of research done on the condition, but so far there are no long-term health issues associated with it. People with this condition also tend to have reduced body fat, though increased muscular strength isn't always part of the deal.

The Stinkiest Mutation

We can all get a stink about ourselves when we're working hard or spending time in the heat. A small number of people, however, are doomed to emit a constant, unpleasant smell. There's an enzyme in the body responsible for breaking down the chemical trimethylaminuria, which comes from digesting eggs, beans, and fish – some really stinky foods.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (80)

A mutated FMO3 gene prevents the enzyme from being produced which results in someone suffering from a strong, noticeable body odor that people have called similar to rotting fish. It's a rare occurrence, happening in less than one percent of the population. Thankfully.

Want More Hair? You Got It

For most people, having hair on their heads, chins, chests, and maybe legs is good enough. For people with Ambras syndrome, they're going to have much more. It can potentially cause hair all over their bodies, but each person usually has it isolated to certain places. It can, however, cover them from head to toe, which is known as hypertrichosis, or “werewolf syndrome.”

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (81)

The syndrome is quite rare – it has affected only about fifty people since the Middle Ages. The responsible gene behind this one is TRPS1, a mutation that disrupts messages sent to cells developing follicles.

Gut Fermentation Syndrome

None of us like to be hungover, even if it was for a good reason. But people who have Auto-brewery syndrome, otherwise known as gut fermentation syndrome, will always be hungover. Sometimes it takes a little bit of alcohol, sometimes it takes none at all.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (82)

The syndrome occurs when your gut produces an excess of saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is a form of yeast. The yeast then sits in the GI tract, which will ferment things and produce ethanol, a form of alcohol. As you might expect, this leads to the absorption of that alcohol, and constantly being drunk or hungover.

Kinda Like Something out of a Lovecraft Story

Ectrodactyly is famously known as “lobster claw hand” or “split hand malformation,” and we bet you can figure out why. Individuals with this disorder have a cleft where their middle toes or fingers should be, meaning they'll only have the outermost toes or fingers, though there is some variance in how it manifests.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (83)

There are a number of ways for this disorder to appear, though it's always through some change in chromosome seven. While the disorder will likely affect people their entire lives unless they undergo many surgeries, there are some people who have not only prospered but become famous, such as chess players, actresses, and athletes.

More Limbs Than Normal

For a really high percentage of people, the number of limbs is four. Two arms, two legs. That's pretty much how it goes with mammals. Polymelia, however, bucks the trend and can add more. It's a birth defect that is said to be the result of an improperly-absorbed twin.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (84)

It's often found in animals, and conjoined twins are a form of this defect, which results from an absorption that is even less complete. The additional limbs are often shrunken, deformed, and unable to be of use. It's also possible that one or more genes have gone through a mutation, resulting in an additional limb.

It's Not a Disability

Due to an extremely rare development in the womb, Wang Fang, born in China, has feet that are turned a hundred and eighty degrees on her ankles. However, she refuses to call it a disability. She can run just as fast as her friends and hold a regular job as a waitress.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (85)

Other than putting her shoes on backward, there's really nothing wrong with her. It was feared she wouldn't be able to walk properly when she was born, but it turns out she doesn't have any other side effects, which must be a one-in-a-trillion chance.

Walking on All Fours

It's possible that only one family in the entire world suffers from this peculiar disorder. Uner Tan syndrome is named after the evolutionary biologist who first studied it, finding it in a single-family in rural Turkey.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (86)

The condition is, even by neurological conditions, quite strange. Individuals who suffer from it walk like quadrupeds – on all fours. They also use primitive speech and have a congenital brain impairment, which includes something called “disturbed conscious experience.” Tan believes that the condition is due to some sort of backward stage of human evolution, but other experts aren't convinced that genetics has everything to do with it.

Hey, No Clipping Needed

Anonychia congenita is a rare disorder that takes place during formation, in which a person's toes or fingers don't develop nails at the end. It's such a small change, but just imagine having toes or fingers that don't have nails. You'll feel so strange.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (87)

It doesn't seem too bad all things considered, and as far as we can tell it doesn't come with any other effects. It could be due to a number of things, including infection, trauma, skin diseases, and even plain old genetics. Not only can people have no nail, but they can also have just part of a nail.

Elf? Vulcan? You Decide

Stahl's Ear is known by a number of other names. It's been called Satiro's ear, Vulcan or Spock ear, and elf ear. It's a development of an extra cartilage fold in the ear, which gives it a natural pointed shape.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (88)

Thankfully, the extra fold and different shape haven't presented any other changes – not even with hearing. However, many parents still chose to have the ear reshaped in order to, perhaps, reduce possible future teasing. This can be done with a simple mold if it presents young enough, or an outpatient procedure if the child is older. If they don't get it corrected, the kid will save tons on costume supplies.

An Eyeball Scar

A corneal scar happens when the cornea of your eye, typically transparent and clear, has an opacity or irregularity that blocks light. Not all scars affect vision, but many of them can mean a significant loss of vision.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (89)

These scars can develop because of injury or trauma, infections, or eye diseases, and have numerous effects like pain, swelling, and the constant feeling that something is in your eye. Which sounds like torture. Corneal scars may not change over time, or they may worsen due to an underlying disease. Milder scars may only require glasses to correct the vision, but more serious scars have a number of treatments available to mitigate or remove the damage.

They Get a Slight Advantage While Swimming

This is one of the more common traits on this list – it's likely someone you know has this feature, as it develops in one in two thousand live births. Webbed toes present most commonly as a connection between the second and third toes, with skin that extends higher. It can sometimes reach all the way to the end.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (90)

The specific cause of this condition is still a mystery. There is clearly some genetic component, as close family members can share the trait, but there are a number of possible reasons. If you have this condition, don't feel bad – Ashton Kutcher also has it.

Being Born Without a Bridge in the Nose

We all know that the bridge of the nose is the bony area, actually cartilage, that gives our nose shape. Some people have a low bridge, but others are bone without that cartilage at all. This is actually relatively common for people of Asian or African descent – or at least less rare.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (91)

The condition typically doesn't impair breathing, though a small amount of plastic surgery may be recommended to ensure proper airflow. Other than genetics, this can be due to genetic disorders, birth defects, or even infectious diseases.

Hey, Pull My Finger

Trigger finger is a little different than what you might think it is. It's a condition that occurs when one of your fingers is stuck in a bent or straightened position, known as stenosing tenosynovitis. It happens when inflammation shrinks the space within the sheath that wraps around the tendon in the affected finger.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (92)

The condition can happen often with people whose work or hobbies require repetitive gripping motions. It's also more likely to occur in women, and in people with diabetes. The treatment of this condition varies depending on the severity, ranging from inflammation-reduction to surgery.

A Singular Palmar Crease

Known as a simian crease (because it looks like a monkey might have it, we guess?), having one long crease across your palm is the result of the fusion of the two main palmar creases — the heart line and the head line. It's often found in people with a few abnormal medical conditions, but otherwise, perfectly healthy people can also develop it.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (93)

About 1.5% of the population has it in at least one hand. It's now known in the scientific community as the single transverse palmar crease. The most likely cause of this is fetal hand movement since the crease develops during the second month of pregnancy.

You've Heard of Being Left-Handed

How about being right-hearted? This rare condition forms the heart on the right side of the chest, and it's called dextrocardia. There are a few versions of the condition. The first is dextrocardia of embryonic arrest, which moves the heart further right than normal, and is associated with many heart defects.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (94)

Then there is dextrocardia situs solitus, with the heart on the right side of the chest but everything else is normal. Dextrocardia situs inversus has the heart being mirrored on the right side. There are more still. Surprisingly, most of these versions of the disorder don't present a big list of problems. About one in every twelve-thousand people develop this condition.

This Little Spider Went to Market

Fittingly called “spider fingers,” arachnodactyly is a condition that makes fingers and toes abnormally long and slender in comparison to the rest of the hand and foot. People with this disorder also have thumbs that are pulled inwards toward the palm.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (95)

People with this condition usually have no other health conditions, but it can sometimes become linked to Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, and more. It's possible that famous Russian composer and pianist Sergei Rachmaninoff had this condition or Marfan's syndrome. The condition has been linked to mutations in both the fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2 genes.

It Kind of Looks Like a Map

A port-wine stain, as long as it isn't an unfortunate end to a party, is also discoloration of the skin caused by a vascular anomaly, named because it's similar to the color of Port wine. A port-wine stain most commonly appears on the face but could appear anywhere on the skin, with the neck, upper trunk, arms, and legs also being common.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (96)

They start out pink, but will often darken into red or purplish colors. While usually harmless, they can be removed to reduce potential problems or bullying. The last leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, had a prominent port-wine stain on his forehead.

Hair That Spins Both Ways

All of us have a whorl in our hair that helps determine how the follicles lie, which side is better to part on, etc. About seventy-five percent of people have clockwise whorls, while eleven percent have a counter-clockwise pattern. For the rest, there are increasingly rare options, including the double whorl, which is present in about five percent of people.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (97)

Old wives' tales say that it means a person is more intelligent, will develop a certain health problem, or any number of other things. However, there's no evidence to suggest any of these are true, not even the one about people with a double-whorl going bald faster.

Read the Writing on the Skin

Dermatographic urticaria is a skin disorder that affects anywhere from two to five percent of the population. It manifests with an allergic-like reaction, raising a red wheal on the skin when scratched or otherwise affected. It can be caused by a number of different things, from a higher number of histamine being released in the body to tight clothing or diet.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (98)

Usually, this condition is of no issue other than a neat party trick, but sometimes itchy red welts can last for anywhere from hours to days. Thankfully, that intensity is as rare as the condition itself.

Art Out of Pain

These cool treelike figures on the skin look like neat tattoos, but they're actually the result of people being hit by lightning, called Lichtenberg figures. No doubt you noticed the similarity.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (99)

The branching electrical pattern happens when an electrically insulating material receives a high enough voltage to become an electrical conductor. It's hard to get a higher voltage than a lightning bolt. People who have been struck require lengthy hospital stays and plenty of work to recuperate, but they also get these scars – though they usually disappear after about twenty-four hours. A lightning bolt itself is a naturally-occurring three-dimensional Lichtenberg figure.

Those Simple Little Dots

It's hard to argue that freckles aren't at least a little cute, but you may be surprised to learn that they, too, are the result of mutations. Partially, anyway. It has to do with melanocytes — the cells in the skin that make pigment.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (100)

When exposed to UV light, they produce melanin, which makes skin darker to protect us. When the gene MC1R isn't working properly, freckles are created instead of a tan after time in the sun. Another version of this gene is responsible for red hair, which is why it's so common for those with red hair to have plenty of freckles, too.

A Split in the Jaw

A cleft chin is actually a slight mishap during development, but seeing as how it doesn't present any problems, you'd likely never know. Not all cleft chins are exactly the same, but they all happen the same way – when the two halves of the jaw bone, or the muscle, don't fuse properly.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (101)

Men are more frequently cleft-chinned than women at an almost two-to-one ratio due to the jaw sizes. Cleft chins are common but not a dominant trait. Even if two parents have perfectly round chins, there's still a chance a child could have a cleft chin.

No Milk for You

In any moderate group of people, there's a pretty good chance that someone is lactose intolerant. Lactose intolerance is found all over since it's an evolutionary trait. Before we cultivated animal milk to drink we were weaned off after a year or two. It's especially common in East Asia and China.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (102)

Of course, the trait doesn't mean that every child someone with LI has will also have it – there are plenty of siblings who don't share it. For some reason, people from northern Europe have much lower LI rates than the rest of the world.

Your Genetics Give You a Sweet Tooth

Thanks to 23andMe, the company that allowed you to look into your family genetics, people have discovered lots of things about themselves. One of those things is Europeans have a huge preference for sweet foods compared to the rest of the world.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (103)

There's a clear reason for this —since sugar has lots of calories, and during most of the history of the world, that was something you needed as much as possible. There's still plenty of personal preference at work here, but Europeans have a much higher chance of loving their sweet treats.

What if You Love Salty Foods?

It turns out your genetics have a lot to do with what kind of foods you like to eat. People of East Asian descent have a tendency to enjoy salty foods a lot more than the rest of the world.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (104)

While it's fully possible this has to do with the genetics of a person (tongues, taste buds, etc), it's also just as possible that the kind of food you eat while you're a child informs what kind of food you like. It's the classic nature versus nurture debate, but it's clear that the part of the world your genetics hail from at least does part of it.

Eye Color Based on Region of the World

Eye color is the kind of thing that high school students use to learn about genetics, so you'd think it's one of the simpler elements. On the other hand, it turns out the science behind eye color is pretty fascinating.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (105)

Your eye color is a way to tell people what area of the world you're from. It goes even further than just “dark,” or “blue,” since the specific shade can tie you to East Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and or all over the world. Certain genetic variants pop up from each of the areas. It's easiest to do this with the darker shades of iris.

The Genes That Make You Fast

If you want split-second speed, you need fast-twitch muscle fibers. Fast-twitch muscle fibers come from the protein alpha-actinin-3, which is created thanks to the ACTN3 gene. One or both of these genes can be defective in people – in fact, eighteen percent of us have inherited two defective copies, which makes it harder to build muscle.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (106)

A number of elite sprinters and super-strong powerlifters, on the other hand, have two working versions of the gene, and thus develop fast-twitch muscle fibers at a higher rate. Don't be fooled, though – there's still plenty of training involved.

The Gene That Protects Against Malaria

Malaria is incredibly dangerous, but there are some people that are protected against it thanks to their genes. Blood disorders are never the best thing for people, but one gene-caused condition at least does a good thing.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (107)

Those that have one sickle gene and one normal hemoglobin gene are more protected against malaria. While that does mean they're carriers for sickle-cell disease, it also means they're safer in some ways. This reveal could help develop malaria treatments in the future, potentially saving millions of lives.

Embarrassing Genetics

When you're out drinking with your friends, do you start to get a rosy hue after just one glass? Your genetics is to blame. Specifically, a mutation on the ALDH2 gene.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (108)

A certain defect interferes with the liver to convert an alcohol byproduct – acetaldehyde – into its next form. Instead, the acetaldehyde builds up in the blood and causes the capillaries to expand, increasing the blood flow and making you blush. That might not seem too bad, but acetaldehyde is a carcinogen, so tread with caution. One possible way to avoid the downsides is to reduce drinking.

Time to Be Big

Elisany da Cruz Silva is a towering six-foot-eight. In Brazil where she's from, she's head, shoulders, and torso above all other women and quite a number of men, including her partner. This one-of-a-kind model has a dangerous form of gigantism, which began with a pituitary gland problem.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (109)

There are numerous versions of this condition, and while they all come with issues (Silva is certainly going to need to be careful with her joints) they also can do something like this, and make you big and beautiful. You might have to get used to stares, however, which is something Elisany definitely had to deal with.

Giving People the Bowie Eye

You might know the story about how famous rocker David Bowie had a permanently-enlarged pupil thanks to a teenage injury, but there are plenty of others who have such a condition, too. It's called anisocoria, and it affects up to twenty percent of the population.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (110)

Nine times out of ten, or even more often, it's perfectly harmless. Versions range from physiological anisocoria, which is the most common and results in a one-millimeter difference, to mechanical anisocoria or oculomotor nerve palsy, which are more visible, and can come with other issues. Migraines are also a known factor, though not for everybody.

Bridging the Gap

Diastema is a body feature you very well could have. It's the scientific term for having a gap between two teeth, most commonly the front incisors. It's most common in children, due to an imbalance between the size of the jaw and the teeth. There are plenty of other factors, however, including genetics, development, and luck.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (111)

If you have this feature, you're not alone. Actors and actresses, musicians and singers, athletes, comedians, and even professional wrestlers have sported the gap and gone on to fame and fortune. Even Geoffrey Chaucer wrote about the “gap-toothed wife of Bath” in his legendary book “The Canterbury Tales.”

Getting the Feline Look

Occurring in only one out of every seventy-four thousand people, cat eye syndrome doesn't just affect the pupils. It's a developmental disease that affects a lot of the body, but the most striking symptom is the elongated shape of the pupils, which can often look like the slitted pupils of a cat.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (112)

Not all eyes change in this manner, and there are many who have the disorder who don't have abnormal pupils at all. The condition is caused by additional copies of chromosome 22. People with the disorder can have one or two additional copies. The disorder was first documented in 1899, and the cause was discovered in 1965.

Changing Color in the Cold

We all lose a little bit of color in the cold thanks to blood moving away from our extremities and toward our important organs, but people with Reynaud's syndrome have it a little worse. It's when the spasm of small arteries causes episodes of reduced blood flow to end arterioles.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (113)

It's typically the fingers that are affected, and sometimes the toes. In rare cases, the nose, ears, or lips are affected. While the cold is a big part of this happening, other causes include smoking, certain medications, and thyroid problems. About four percent of people suffer from some form of the disorder, and it's more prevalent in women.

Time to Stretch Yourself

Ehlers Danlos syndromes are a group of thirteen genetic connective-tissue disorders. One of the more common symptoms of these disorders is something called skin elasticity. Weak connective tissue creates skin that is incredibly stretchy or velvety soft. It's often quite thin and heals with abnormal scars.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (114)

Some people with these disorders can stretch their skin out to absurd degrees, including doing things like putting their neck folds into their mouths or taking the tight skin of their arm and creating something that looks like a canvas. These disorders include plenty of other symptoms, and this one isn't all good, but it can still be a bit of fun.

The Speck in Your Eye

As our eyes develop, the remnants of a fetal membrane can persist inside the pupil, creating something called a persistent pupillary membrane, or PPM. It was originally present to provide blood to the lens for proper nutrients, but after birth, it serves little purpose.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (115)

A PPM causes when the membrane does not properly atrophy, but symptoms are rare, and even those with them lose them before reaching adulthood. Though some small effects may occur, minor treatments and rare surgeries will remove it entirely. In the meantime, it looks like a creature out of space.

That Dangly Thing, as Cardi B Calls It

We all have a uvula – that bit of flesh in the back of the mouth that dangles down. It's a helpful little bit for producing saliva, blocking nasal cavities while swallowing, and is also part of the gag reflex, which – while unpleasant – does a lot of good work for us.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (116)

Some people have a uvula that is split, called a bifid uvula. This sort of disorder is connected to middle ear infections (no fun) and food being able to enter the nasal cavity while swallowing (no fun). However, the population at large only presents this about two percent of the time.

Two Thumbs Way, Way Up

We've all delivered a crisp thumbs up to someone who did a good job, but people with triphalangeal thumb do it better than most. It's a congenital malformation where the thumb has three phalanges (bones) instead of two. The extra bone can vary in size from a pebble, all the way to being compared to other fingers' bones.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (117)

This seems like a great thing, but the affected thumbs often have mobility issues, and sometimes aren't even opposable. The condition seems to be primarily genetic, though the direct cause isn't yet known. It occurs in one out of every twenty-five thousand births.

Seeing Double

You've heard of the condition strabismus before, but you've probably heard of it by the name of being cross-eyed. Whether only sometimes or constantly, people who are cross-eyed have trouble focusing both eyes on one place. It can be the result of muscle dysfunction, farsightedness, problems in the brain, or even infections or trauma. It's also thought to have a genetic factor.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (118)

Strabismus occurs in about two percent of children, and there are various treatment types depending on the intensity, including simple glasses or surgery. Related is something called “Wall-eye” where the eyes look away from each other. Both disorders fall under the strabismus umbrella.

Hairless From Head to Toe

It's a sad fact of life that most people will have some hair loss. Even women will lose their mane volume over time. Alopecia Universalis, however, is that turned up to eleven. It's a complete lack of hair on the entire body – head, eyebrows, beard, chest, arms, legs, back, everywhere. However, people who have this disorder are otherwise completely healthy with no other symptoms.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (119)

The true cause isn't entirely known, but the current consensus is it's an autoimmune disorder where the body attacks hair follicles. Once again, genetics may also play a part, as twenty percent of people with alopecia Universalis have a family member who is also affected.

These Feet are Deadly Weapons

Genetic and environmental factors combine to create something called clubfoot, where one of the feet or both are rotated inward and downward on newborn children. The foot and leg may also be smaller than is normal, but various treatments are available to correct the issues. These include casting, manipulation of the Achilles tendon, braces, and surgery.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (120)

Without this help walking can be painful and difficult, though as long as it's treated with time, people who have developed clubfoot usually have no issues in life other than an interesting fact about themselves. It's more common, for some reason, in first children as well as males.

No Colors Here

Color blindness – or color vision deficiency – is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color. There are several versions, including total color blindness where the sufferer only sees in shades of gray. The most common cause of this disorder is a genetic problem in the development of the eyes' cone cells, which sense color.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (121)

Since the genes that carry these problems are on the X chromosome, men suffer from this disorder far more than women. The disorder makes people unable to have certain jobs, including pilots, train drivers, and many positions in the armed forces.

Sneezing in the Sun

A number of humans have something called the photic sneeze reflex – there's a reasonable chance you have it since it affects a quarter of the population. If you've ever sneezed when you step into bright sunlight, then you have it.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (122)

Scientists are, to put it mildly, baffled about why this happens. However, it's clear it's genetic – if one of your parents has it, you have a fifty percent chance of also having it. While sneezing isn't really dangerous, having a weakness for bright lights during driving or operations can pose some interesting problems.

Dry Earwax? Wet? Sticky? Your Genes Decide

Earwax is pretty much a human constant, but there are a bunch of different versions. Some of it is dry, flaky, and gray, while other people produce it wet, yellow, and sticky. It's all because of one gene, ABCC11.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (123)

The version of the gene – called an allele – determines the production of this substance. That's about it as far as the reasoning goes, but the same gene is also responsible for body odor, primarily the smell of your armpits. If you have wet, sticky earwax, there's a bigger chance to have a stronger body odor.

Going to Bed Late or Getting up Early

We all have a part of the day when we feel most alert, awake, and productive. You might be a night owl or a morning lark, or you might be some time in between, but once again this is all thanks to our genes.

Joined for Life; The Amazing Story of Conjoined Twins (124)

Our circadian rhythm runs on a twenty-four-hour schedule, but genes can slow it down or speed it up slightly. Those who have a fast rhythm will feel full of energy in the morning but crash at night, while those with a slow rhythm will be slow in the morning and have lots of energy at night.


What is the tragic story of conjoined twins Abby and Brittany? ›

The tragic story of conjoined twins Abby and Brittany. Abby and Brittany were born on March 7, 1990, in Carver County, Minnesota. At birth, the doctors discovered that they were dicephalic parapagus twins, as they had a single body, but each had a separate heart, stomach, spine, pair of lungs, and spinal cord.

Are Brittany and Abby still conjoined? ›

When Abby and Brittany were born, they had to have surgery early on. They were born with a third arm growing near both of their heads. Doctors were able to remove the limb. Since then, the two have grown into happy, healthy, and amazing women.

Have twins Brittany and Abby been separated? ›

As the twins grew and learned to walk and develop other skills, their parents confirmed their decision against separation, arguing that the quality of life for the surviving twin or twins living separately would be less than their quality of life as conjoined people.

What is the sad story of the conjoined twins? ›

Masha and Dasha Krivoshlyapova were born in Moscow in 1950 with two heads, two torsos, two arms and one leg each, and a third, vestigial limb at the back. The twins were immediately snatched from their mother's care and spent the rest of their lives shut away in dehumanizing circumstances.

Are conjoined twins sad news Abby and Brittany married? ›

They were born and reared in New Germany, Minnesota, went to Mayer Lutheran High School there, and in 2012 they received their degrees from Bethel University in St. Paul. Are cojoined twins Abby and Brittany Hensel married in 2022? Abby and Brittany are not married yet as in 2022.

What happens if one of the two conjoined twins dies? ›

When one of the conjoined twins dies, usually the surviving twin follows in that twin's footsteps, whether from natural causes or an unintended catastrophe. Conjoined twins can split apart over the course of a few hours or even several days, but once they do, the surviving twin has a limited lifespan.

Did Abby and Brittany have a baby? ›

However, the conjoined twins are not having a baby anytime soon because none of them is pregnant.

How do conjoined twins have intimate relationships? ›

With parapagus twins, there's typically a “red line” that separates feeling on both sides — until you get to the waist area. More bluntly, you would be having sex with a shared sexual organ, which usually means that both will experience the same orgasm at the same time.

Which conjoined twins recently separated? ›

Conjoined twins successfully separated in rare surgery

23 in a procedure that took 11 hours and involved 25 medical professionals. James Finley and Amanda Arciniega of Saginaw, Texas, are the parents of twin girls AmieLynn and JamieLynn, who were born last October, reports NBC Fort Worth affiliate KXAS.

Did the conjoined twins ever get married? ›

The best example of this would probably be the story of Chang and Eng Bunker, the “Siamese Twins,” so called because they were from Siam (now Thailand). Chang and Eng were joined by just a bit of liver and some skin. One April day in 1843, Chang married Adelaide Yates, while brother Eng married sister Sallie Yates.

Did conjoined twins marry the same person? ›

Ganga and Jamuna Mondal, who share four arms, three legs and a stomach but have separate hearts, have both fallen in love with school teacher, Jasimuddin Ahmad. “it was love at first sight,” Ganga said. “When we met Jasimuddin we both felt this was a man who would truly love us.

Have conjoined twins gotten pregnant? ›

Of all the female conjoined twin sets either documented by medical authorities or referenced in ancient literary sources, in only one case were pregnancy and delivery successfully achieved by the conjoined twins themselves.

Who controls the body of Brittany and Abby? ›

With two sets of lungs, two hearts, two stomachs, one liver, one large intestine and one reproductive system, they have learned from a young age to co-ordinate their body, with Abby controlling the right hand side and Brittany the left.

Can conjoined twins be different sexes? ›

The craniopagus twins have separate bodies but partially fused skulls, and share bone, vital blood vessels and 30% of their brain (the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe).

How long do conjoined twins live? ›

Ronnie and Donnie Galyon of Ohio (1951–2020), omphalopagus; longest-lived conjoined twins in the world at 68 years and 250 days.

What happened to the Hilton conjoined twins? ›

The twins were found dead in their home, victims of the Hong Kong flu. According to a forensic investigation, Daisy died first; Violet died between two to four days later. They were buried in Forest Lawn West Cemetery in Charlotte.

Has there ever been conjoined triplets? ›

In a previous review of the literature, only 3 cases of true conjoined triplets have been found. However, all 3 cases occurred in the 19th or early 20th century. 3, 4, 5 Because conjoined triplets are rare, there is no classification system for this disorder.

Were Ronnie and Donnie Galyon married? ›

Never married, Donnie did most of the cooking, dishes and laundry while Ronnie cleaned the bathroom and did most of the talking, reported MLive. The brothers cast two votes, had two Social Security numbers but traveled under only one passport.

What conjoined twins Cannot be separated? ›

Approximately 75 percent of conjoined twins are joined at least partially in the chest and share organs with one another. If they have separate sets of organs, chances for surgery and survival are greater than if they share the same organs. As a rule, shared heart conjoined twins cannot be separated.

What happens if one conjoined twin is asleep? ›

Yes one can sleep while the other does not. If one half dies the other dies shortly after.

Do conjoined twins get paid as one person? ›

They also got two separate teaching licenses and are now teaching at a primary school. But they are paid only one salary because, as one of them told the BBC, "we're doing the job of one person". Whomever got hired for the job gets paid.

Who was Brittany baby daddy? ›

Brittany Renner finally reveals how much she receives in child support from her baby's father Pj Washington. In September 2021, social media went wild with a rumor that Renner was receiving 200,000 in child support leading to the viral mockery of Washington.

What do Abby and Brittany do now? ›

What Do Abby and Brittany Do Today? Abby and Brittany studied education at Bethel University and they both graduated in 2012. They currently work as teachers at an elementary school in New Brighton, Minnesota. The twins teach fourth and fifth grade with a concentration in math.

Who are the oldest living conjoined twins? ›

Conjoined Twins. confounded everyone in living to the ripe old age of 68. hugely fulfilling life.

Are conjoined twins two babies who are born physically connected to each other? ›

Conjoined twins are two babies who are born physically connected to each other. Conjoined twins develop when an early embryo only partially separates to form two individuals. Although two babies develop from this embryo, they remain physically connected — most often at the chest, abdomen or pelvis.

Do conjoined twins have to go to the bathroom at the same time? ›

If conjoined twins share genitals, then they go to the bathroom together when they need to go. If they have separate genitals, one will have to squat or lean over while the other one uses the restroom. It's also possible for conjoined twins to use bedpans or have a bathroom specially built to accommodate their needs.

Why are most conjoined twins female? ›

Experts don't know exactly what causes the condition. But it likely involves splitting or fusion of very early-stage embryos soon after fertilization. All conjoined twins are identical, and about two-thirds are assigned female at birth (AFAB).

What age are conjoined twins separated? ›

Usually, twins have separation surgery in the first 3 months to 12 months of life. The success of the separation surgery depends on many factors, mainly where the twins are connected and which structures they share.

How many conjoined twins survive separation? ›

Conjoined twins generally have a poor prognosis. The total survival rate is 7.5%. Only 60% of the surgically separated cases survive.

Were the 10 month old conjoined twins successfully separated? ›

Richard D. Wood Jr. Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment. After nearly a year in intensive care at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), 10-month-old conjoined twins Addison (Addy) and Lilianna (Lily) Altobelli were successfully separated by CHOP surgeons on October 13, 2021.

What conjoined twins had a baby? ›

She was conjoined to her twin for the first 7 months of life. Now an adult, she just had her own baby. Charity and Kathleen Lincoln were conjoined at the torso when they were born more than two decades ago. They were connected at the sternum and shared several vital internal organs that were intertwined.

Have any conjoined twins died? ›

A conjoined twin has died during a procedure intended to separate the two 19-month-old boys. The two boys, Yusuf and Yassin, are from Yemen, a Middle Eastern country located on the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula that has been devastated by years of civil war.

Has the conjoined twins separated? ›

A pair of conjoined twins were successfully separated during a complex procedure that marked a surgical first for the Fort Worth, Texas, pediatric hospital where it took place on Monday.

Are the Altobelli conjoined twins separated? ›

The twins spent months in the hospital. Nearly 11 months later, in October 2021, it was time to separate them. The girls shared a liver, diaphragm, chest and abdominal wall. The surgery took 10 hours.

How many sets of conjoined twins have been separated? ›

Our Experience with Conjoined Twins More than 138sets of conjoined twins referred to the CFDT64pairs prenatally evaluated28pairs successfully separatedNumbers reflect data as of January 2023 at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

Have conjoined twins ever had a baby? ›

Of all the female conjoined twin sets either documented by medical authorities or referenced in ancient literary sources, in only one case were pregnancy and delivery successfully achieved by the conjoined twins themselves.

Which conjoined twins separated in 2023? ›

Parents Amanda Aricinega and James Finley hold their conjoined twins AmieLynn and JamieLynn who were successfully separated on Jan. 23, 2023.

Have conjoined twins separated but died? ›

The separation stage of the surgery was completed at SST 13:30, but there was significant blood loss during the blood vessel repairing process, and Ladan Bijani died at around 14:30 on the operating table; her sister Laleh Bijani died 90 minutes later.

Where are Addy and Lily now? ›

Addy and Lily spent nearly a year at CHOP before being separated on October 13, 2021, and are now home in Chicago.


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Ray Christiansen

Last Updated: 12/03/2023

Views: 6440

Rating: 4.9 / 5 (69 voted)

Reviews: 84% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Ray Christiansen

Birthday: 1998-05-04

Address: Apt. 814 34339 Sauer Islands, Hirtheville, GA 02446-8771

Phone: +337636892828

Job: Lead Hospitality Designer

Hobby: Urban exploration, Tai chi, Lockpicking, Fashion, Gunsmithing, Pottery, Geocaching

Introduction: My name is Ray Christiansen, I am a fair, good, cute, gentle, vast, glamorous, excited person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.